Howto remap keyboard keys in Linux

Almost two years since I wrote a blog post, but learnt a lot in these past two years. I’ll be writing everything I can remember in the coming days, but first, I need to record down something I learnt recently.

I came across one challenge to generate a key press event where the key is not at all in the normal US keyboard. That special key (Hangul/English Toggle key) is only available in Korean Keyboard. So, here is how I did

We need to choose any one key available in the normal US keyboard and remap it to produce Hangul/English Toggle Key’s code. For my purpose I’m going to remap F7 key to produce Hangul/English keypress events. First, I need to know what F7 produces when it gets pressed. There is a tool called “evtest” which will show the code generated by physical keyboard

Event: time 1496043435.462606, type 4 (EV_MSC), code 4 (MSC_SCAN), value 41
Event: time 1496043435.462606, type 1 (EV_KEY), code 65 (KEY_F7), value 0

Here, the MSC_SCAN value of “41” (hexadecimal) is the code generated by the physical keyboard. Using this value. we need to create one file (/usr/lib/udev/hwdb.d/63-keyboard.hwdb) with the following content

keyboard:name:AT Translated Set 2 keyboard:dmi:*

Here, The first line starting with “keyboard:” indicates the name of the keyboard. There are lot of way to match the keyboard (see /usr/lib/udev/hwdb.d/60-keyboard.hwdb file for more details). The second line which starting with “KEYBOARD_KEY_” should have one space before “KEYBOARD”. The “hangeul” string at the end of the second line is a suffixed lowercase substring of a macro defined in /usr/include/linux/input-event-codes.h file. You can use more than one “KEYBOARD_KEY_=” lines to remap the keys in your physical keyboard.

Once you create the 63-keyboard.hwdb file. Run the following command to update /etc/udev/hwdb.bin file which is used by udev

sudo udevadm hwdb --update

Once the hwdb.bin file updated, Either reboot your machine or trigger udev events for the particular keyboard (here, /dev/input/event1 may vary depend on your keyboard devfile mapping)

sudo udevadm trigger /dev/input/event1

Once you have the remapping, you can test it again with evtest.

Event: time 1496046275.166879, type 4 (EV_MSC), code 4 (MSC_SCAN), value 41
Event: time 1496046275.166879, type 1 (EV_KEY), code 122 (KEY_HANGUEL), value 0

In the above output, MSC_SCAN value “41” generates “KEY_HANGUEL” instead of “KEY_F7”.

Systemd for Simple Backup


Nice to get back, Recently switched to F15. Wow!! my userland changed heavily. Previously, its very simple things like,

SysVinit for booting
Udev for devices
pppconfig for Network
Xfce for GUI
ALSA for sound
ffmpeg & mplayer for video


Systemd for booting, daemons
Udev, DBus, UDisks for devices
ModemManager+NetworkManager for Network
Gnome3 for GUI
PulseAudio+ALSA for sound
GStreamer+totem for video

These Technologies are very interesting to learn. I’m not going to explain about each. But, I went through systemd and came up with a solution for my backup problem.

Backup Problem:

While in its last phase, my previous laptop teached me the importance of external backup disks. So, I bought an external 512GB Segate, and backed-up /home/${HOME} tree. It helped me to quickly get back my files to F15. However, one problem is, maintaining my backup. I thought If I plug my external drive, someone should automatically copy all the new files resides in my current /home/${HOME} in F15 to that drive. There are lot of ways to do it. I can think of two main ways,

* Write an udev rule to call a script which will mount that external backup partition and rsync /home/${HOME} in F15 to that external partition. Pros: Fairly straight forward, udevrulefile+rsyncscript will do it. Cons: No control, this will copy every time udev detects that external drive. If there is lot of files to copy, then this will make a mess.

* Use systemd to call a script whenever that external backup partition gets mounted. Pros: You have full control, create a backup.service for systemd, create backup.bash to rsync /home/${HOME} to backup disk. Enable that service in systemd to automatically do rsync, or just load that service to systemd and only start that service If you want to backup your files. Cons: Need to pass one more layer to run the actual rsync script.

So, I took-up systemd

There are lot of ways you can trigger your service in systemd. Also, you can depend on another systemd unit to trigger your service. In this case, I depend on a mount unit to trigger my backup.service. This service, in-turn, will trigger script.

To define a systemd unit, you need to know what type of unit you want to create. Currently there are 10 types of units systemd can understand [read systemd.unit(5)]. For backup job, I used two type units, one is systemd.mount(5) amd systemd.service(5). If you go through systemd.mount(5) you will understand that systemd will automatically load this units whenever systemd saw a block device. So, systemd will automatically provide ‘media-ExternalBackupPartition.mount’ whenever I insert my external hard disk . I only need to define the next unit, backup.service for systemd.

Note: There is a story behind the name ‘media-ExternalBackupPartition’. I’ll tell you at the end of this post. Lets just continue with systemd for now.

To define a unit for systemd, you need to create a file as /etc/systemd/system/name.unit; (for my backup problem, unit file is /etc/systemd/system/backup.service). Here ‘name’, may be anything relevent to your job and ‘unit’ must be one of ‘service’, ‘socket’, ‘device’, ‘mount’, ‘automount’, ‘swap’, ‘target’, ‘path’, ‘timer’ and ‘snapshot’. Read systemd.unit(5) man pages for more precise information.

Unit Class:
Unit definition files contains information in .ini format. One of the class ‘[Unit]’ must exist in every unit file. Here is the [Unit] class for backup.service

Description='sync my files with external backup drive'

Here ‘Description’ is a general description for your service. We need to put the required unit which will trigger this new unit in ‘Requires’ field. Systemd will run this unit once all the units in ‘Requires’ fields satisfied. We can call these ‘Requires’ units as parent units, and your unit as child. However, systemd will not wait for parent units to complete to run child unit. We need to explicitly ask systemd to wait for parent units to complete, For this purpose we have ‘After’ field. If you define which parent unit needs to be completed before your child unit could run, you need to mention it in ‘After’ field.

For my backup.service child unit, ‘media-ExternalBackupPartition.mount’ unit must be satisfied in systemd. That means, my external HD partition must be mounted inside ‘/media/ExternalBackupPartition’ path. Also, Using ‘After=’ field, I instructed systemd, not to start this child unit before ‘mount-ExternalBackupPartition.mount’ finishes.

Service Class:

Now we need to define what to do once the requirements satisfies. For that purpose, we need to define ‘[Service]’ class, Here is the service class for backup.service,


This ‘[Service]’ class is specific to ‘systemd.service’ units. Here, ‘ExecStart=/home/mohan/Development/scripts/’ asks systemd to run ‘’ whenever ‘backup.service’ satisfies. You can do lot of customization to setup the execution environment before start running any commands, such as log redirection, demonizing etc., there are lot of fields to use in ‘[Service]’ class, but I simply used ‘Type=simple’ to tell systemd, that no need to do any change in execution environment. The script ‘’ will take care of all the redirection within itself.

Install Class:
In SysV init system, we use ‘chkconfig (redhat/fedora)’ or ‘update-rc.d (debian)’ to enable or disable a service. In systemd, we use this ‘[Install]’ class to enable or disable our ‘backup.service’ unit so that it will work even after a restart. Here is install class for backup.service,


In systemd, enabling a service means, adding a symlink to ‘/etc/systemd/system/name.service.wants/’ directory. disabling a service means, removing that symlink. ‘systemctl’ command can do this add/remove symlink automatically when we call it with ‘systemctl enable backup.service’ or ‘systemctl disable backup.service’, but we need to say the parent unit name, thats why we have this ‘[Install]’ class. Simply, we need to mention that parent unit in ‘WantedBy=’ field.


Once the unit files are ready, we need to enable them into systemd. For backup.service, I executed following commands to setup the service

$ sudo cp ~/backup.service /etc/systemd/system/backup.service
$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload

I just copied backup.service unit file to systemd’s location and asked systemd to reload unit definitions. Now we can check if things loaded properly or not using following command,

$ sudo systemctl status backup.service
backup.service - 'sync my files with external backup drive'
          Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/backup.service)
          Active: inactive (dead)
          CGroup: name=systemd:/system/backup.service

systemd will say ‘Loaded : error’ if it can’t understand any defnintion in backup.service or if it can’t satisfy the definitions. Otherwise we can start this service using following command, we need to make sure the final rsync script ‘’ exists in the location pointed by ‘ExecStart=’ field.

$ sudo systemctl start backup.service

This will start syncing new files to External backup HD drive, only when It is plugged-in and mounted. Otherwise, the service will fail. you can check the status again using ‘systemctl status’. Once you checked that the service is working as intended, we can enable this service (I mean, creating symlinks) using following command,

$ sudo systemctl enable backup.service

We can verify the symlink as below to make sure parent-child linking is done correctly.

$ ls -l /etc/systemd/system/media-ExternalBackupPartition.mount.wants/baskup.service
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 34 Nov  9 02:08 /etc/systemd/system/media-ExternalBackupPartition.mount.wants/backup.service -> /etc/systemd/system/backup.service

If we don’t want to copy automatically, we can disable it using below command,

$ sudo systemctl disable backup.service

Even If the service is disabled, you can start/stop the service. Systemd will recognize the backup.service, check it’s dependencies and execute ‘’ correctly.


As I already said, systemd will automatically create units using udev, so when my external HD plugs-in, udev will tell to udisks that a new partition is available, then udisks will mount that partition inside ‘/media/uuid’ location, then systemd will create a unit as ‘media-uuid.mount'(systemd uses ‘-‘ instead of ‘/’ for path seperation). But specifying ‘Requires=media-uuid.mount’ inside backup.service file is not working. Thus, I used a simple udev rule to rename udisk’s mount path, here is the rule file,

$ cat 99-rename-udisk-mountpoint.rules
$ sudo cp ~/99-rename-udisk-mountpoint.rules /etc/udev/rules.d

This above two commands, will modify udisk’s mount path to ‘/media/ExternalBackupPartition’ instead of ‘/media/251c683d-bce0-489c-aab5-f684a9a1f3b2′, thus systemd will automatically create ‘media-ExternalBackupPartition.mount’ instead of ‘media-251c683d-bce0-489c-aab5-f684a9a1f3b2.mount’

Finally, Thanks for reaching this line. I hope this long boring article will help you to understand something about systemd.

Creating Fedora DVD Repo


Its almost 1 year since my last post, what happens to me? It a 1 year story to say. But in short, my laptop became older and eventually went down. Graphics card gone. It took a while for me to buy another new one. Here I am.

In between lot thing happened, Something I just wanted to post, but now I can’t remember them. As a fresh start, This is what happened when I got my new ‘Samsung Notebook’. Ordered through FlipKart and got it by last week.

I know that I can’t get Internet because I cancelled my netconnect+ subscription way back when my previous lappy started giving troubles. Thus, My beloved debian is out of reach. So, I decided to get Fedora or Mint DVD from someone and Install it. Thanks to Srini, Amachu and his Gang, for providing Fedora DVD to me. Installation went smoothly and for the first time, I’m in Gnome3,

Fedora 15 Desktop
Fedora 15 Desktop

Installation went smoothly and to my surprise, no more tinkering on mobile modem. Thanks to those guys who created profile for Aircel. At first, bluetooth daemon didn’t start, googled and fixed it.

While playing with Gnome3, I thought of using installation DVD as my repo, because I have limited network with very little speed, It would be better to use existing DVD as my repo. So, that starts my hunger and this is how I ended.

1. Inserted my DVD and monitored how my DVD is mounting. Seems ‘org.freedesktop.UDisks’ takes care of mounting and it always mount my DVD inside ‘/media’ folder taking mount directory name from ‘ENV{ID_FS_LABEL_ENC}” Udev environment variable. I came to know that yum is facing some trouble If I have a ‘fedora-dvd.repo’ file like below under ‘/etc/yum/yum.repos.d’ directory,

name=Fedora DVD $releasever - $basearch
baseurl=file:///media/Fedora 15 i386 DVD
gpgkey=file:///media/Fedora 15 i386 DVD/RPM-GPG-KEY-fedora-$basearch

So, it seems yum cannot handle white-space in URI. Then, I decided to write a Udev rule to rename ‘Fedora 15 i386 DVD’ to ‘Fedora15i386DVD’, So that ‘org.freedesktop.UDisks’ will mount it as ‘file:///media/Fedora15i386DVD’. Here is the rule file

$ cat /etc/udev/rules.d/99-rename-fedora-dvd.rules
ENV{ID_FS_LABEL_ENC}=="Fedora\x2015\x20i386\x20DVD", ENV{ID_FS_LABEL_ENC}="Fedora15i386DVD"

Then, I recreated fedora-dvd.repo as below

$ cat /etc/yum.repos.d/fedora-dvd.repo
name=Fedora DVD $releasever - $basearch

One of the main reason to add this ‘Fedora15i386DVD’ repo is to install development tools without internet. In a way it is more useful than a plain LiveCD.

Don’t forget to insert Fedora DVD If you follow this setup and want to install something from Fedora DVD. A little google tells me that there are lot of ways to achieve this DVD-to-Repo thing in Fedora, I’m relatively new to Fedora, I will learn as I move on.